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Active sites and factors influencing them for efficient oxygen reduction reaction in metal-N coordinated pyrolyzed and non-pyrolyzed catalysts: a review

Title
Active sites and factors influencing them for efficient oxygen reduction reaction in metal-N coordinated pyrolyzed and non-pyrolyzed catalysts: a review
Authors
Singh, KiranpalRazmjooei, FatemehYu, Jong-Sung
DGIST Authors
Singh, Kiranpal; Razmjooei, Fatemeh; Yu, Jong-Sung
Issue Date
2017-10
Citation
Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5(38), 20095-20119
Type
Article
Article Type
Review
Keywords
BiomimeticsCatalyst selectivityCatalystsCoordination reactionsDoping (additives)ElectrolytesElectrolytic reductionFuel cellsPlatinumPlatinum metalsPolyelectrolytesProton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)Carbon supported platinumCathode catalystHeme-copper oxidaseLocal environmentsNitrogen-doped carbonsNon-precious metalsOxygen reduction reactionPolymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFCs)Catalyst activity
ISSN
2050-7488
Abstract
With increasing demand for clean energy and approaching commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), replacing expensive Pt-based cathode catalysts with much cheaper non-precious metal (NPM) catalysts has become absolutely essential. This review highlights the parameters that have been considered vital to improving the overall performance of the NPM-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In the present review, we focus on well-known catalytic systems in three categories of NPM catalysts, i.e. biomimetic heme-copper oxidase enzymes, non-pyrolyzed/polymeric systems, and pyrolyzed NPM-nitrogen-doped carbon (M-N/C) (M = Fe, Ni, Co, etc.) catalysts. The ORR mechanism on the reported active sites and the effect of varying their local environments are considered and discussed in detail. Among all the catalysts, only pyrolyzed M-N/C catalysts have shown activity and stability much closer to that of the state-of-the-art commercial carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) catalyst. Although great heights have been climbed in pyrolyzed M-N/C-based catalysts, still general consensuses need to be established regarding the active sites in the NMP-based M-N/C catalysts to help enhance the activity and stability of the catalytic system. By comparing the ORR mechanisms of the three studied systems, various similarities between the active sites are identified and reported comprehensively. On the basis of the information amassed, some future directions for improving the activity, selectivity, and durability of the NPM-based catalysts are also discussed. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11750/4622
DOI
10.1039/c7ta05222g
Publisher
Royal Society of Chemistry
Related Researcher
  • Author Yu, Jong Sung Light, Salts and Water Research Group
  • Research Interests Materials chemistry; nanomaterials; electrochemistry; carbon and porous materials; fuel cell; battery; supercapacitor; sensor and photochemical catalyst
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Collection:
ETC1. Journal Articles


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