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What Does "Being an Expert" Mean to the Brain? Functional Specificity and Connectivity in Expertise

Title
What Does "Being an Expert" Mean to the Brain? Functional Specificity and Connectivity in Expertise
Authors
Jeon, Hyeon AeFriederici, Angela D.
DGIST Authors
Jeon, Hyeon Ae
Issue Date
2017-12
Citation
Cerebral Cortex, 27(12), 5603-5615
Type
Article
Article Type
Article
Keywords
SUPERIOR PARIETAL CORTEXPREFRONTAL CORTEXNEURAL BASISSTRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITYFRONTOPARIETAL NETWORKARITHMETIC OPERATIONSMENTAL CALCULATIONCOGNITIVE DOMAINSLANGUAGE CONTROLPARAMETRIC FMRI
ISSN
1047-3211
Abstract
To what extent is varying cognitive expertise reflected in the brain's functional specificity and connectivity? We addressed this question by examining expertise in mathematics based on the fact that mathematical skills are one of the most critical cognitive abilities known to be a good predictor of academic achievement. We investigated processing of hierarchical structures, which is a fundamental process for building complex cognitive architecture. Experts and nonexperts in mathematics participated in processing hierarchical structures using algebraic expressions. Results showed that a modulating effect depending on expertise was observed specifically in nonexperts in the left inferior frontal gyrus around pars triangularis and frontal sulcus, the left intraparietal sulcus, and the right inferior parietal lobule. This expertise-dependent pattern of activation led to a crucial dissociation within the left prefrontal cortex. More interestingly, task-related functional networks were also modulated differently in the frontoparietal network for relatively good performance and in the frontostriatal network for poor performance. The present study indicates that a high level of expertise is evident in a small number of specific brain regions, whereas a low level of expertise is reflected by broadly distributed brain areas, along with divergent functional connectivity between experts and nonexperts.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11750/5628
DOI
10.1093/cercor/bhw329
Publisher
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC
Related Researcher
  • Author Jeon, Hyeon Ae Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Research Interests Neural correlates involved in high-level cognition; Functional brain imaging
Files:
There are no files associated with this item.
Collection:
Brain and Cognitive SciencesLaboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience1. Journal Articles


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