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Urine to highly porous heteroatom-doped carbons for supercapacitor: A value added journey for human waste

Title
Urine to highly porous heteroatom-doped carbons for supercapacitor: A value added journey for human waste
Authors
Razmjooei, FatemehSingh, KiranpalKang, Tong HyunChaudhari, NitinYuan, JinliangYu, Jong-Sung
DGIST Authors
Razmjooei, Fatemeh; Singh, Kiranpal; Kang, Tong Hyun; Yu, Jong-Sung
Issue Date
2017-09
Citation
Scientific Reports, 7
Type
Article
Article Type
Article
Keywords
Electrocatalytic Oxygen ReductionElectrode MaterialEnergy StorageFunctionalized GrapheneHigh Performance SupercapacitorHigh Surface AreaOrdered Mesoporous CarbonPower DensitySolid State Supercapacitors
ISSN
2045-2322
Abstract
Obtaining functionalized carbonaceous materials, with well-developed pores and doped heteroatoms, from waste precursors using environmentally friendly processes has always been of great interest. Herein, a simple template-free approach is devised to obtain porous and heteroatom-doped carbon, by using the most abundant human waste, ""urine"". Removal of inherent mineral salts from the urine carbon (URC) makes it to possess large quantity of pores. Synergetic effect of the heteroatom doping and surface properties of the URC is exploited by carrying out energy storage application for the first time. Suitable heteroatom content and porous structure can enhance the pseudo-capacitance and electric double layer capacitance, eventually generating superior capacitance from the URC. The optimal carbon electrode obtained particularly at 900 degrees C (URC-900) possesses high BET surface area (1040.5 m(2)g(-1)), good conductivity, and efficient heteroatom doping of N, S, and P, illustrating high specific capacitance of 166 Fg(-1) at 0.5 Ag-1 for three-electrode system in inorganic electrolyte. Moreover, the URC-900 delivers outstanding cycling stability with only 1.7% capacitance decay over 5,000 cycles at 5 Ag-1. Present work suggests an economical approach based on easily available raw waste material, which can be utilized for large-scale production of new age multi-functional carbon nanomaterials for various energy applications.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11750/4544
DOI
10.1038/s41598-017-11229-6
Publisher
Nature Publishing Group
Related Researcher
  • Author Yu, Jong Sung Light, Salts and Water Research Group
  • Research Interests Materials chemistry; nanomaterials; electrochemistry; carbon and porous materials; fuel cell; battery; supercapacitor; sensor and photochemical catalyst
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Collection:
ETC1. Journal Articles


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