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Ethanol extract of Poria cocos reduces the production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
- Ethanol extract of Poria cocos reduces the production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
- Jeong, JW[Jeong, Jin-Woo]; Lee, HH[Lee, Hye Hyeon]; Han, MH[Han, Min Ho]; Kim, GY[Kim, Gi-Young]; Hong, SH[Hong, Su Hyun]; Park, C[Park, Cheol]; Choi, YH[Choi, Yung Hyun]
- Issue Date
- BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14
- Article Type
- Alcohol; Animal; Animal Cell; Animals; Anti-Inflammation; Anti-Inflammatory Activity; Anti-Inflammatory Agent; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Autacoid; Biological Product; Biological Products; Cell Line; Cell Viability; Cellular Distribution; Chemically Induced; Controlled Study; Cyclooxygenase 2; Cytokine; Cytokine Production; Cytokine Release; Cytokines; Dinoprostone; DNA-Binding; Drug Effects; Enzyme Degradation; Enzyme Inhibition; Gel Mobility Shift Assay; Genetic Transcription; Herbal Medicine; I Kappa B; Immunofluorescence; Immunoglobulin Enhancer Binding Protein; Immunology; In Vitro Study; Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase; Inflammation; Inflammation Mediators; Interleukin-1 Beta; Intracellular Transport; Lipopolysaccharide; Lipopolysaccharides; Macrophage; Macrophages; Messenger RNA; Metabolism; Mice; Mouse; NF-Kappa B; Nitric Oxide; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type Iii; Nitrite; Non-Human; NOS2 Protein, Human; Phytotherapy; Poria; Poria Cocos; Poria Cocos Extract; Prostaglandin E2; Prostaglandin Release; Prostaglandin Synthesis; Protein Degradation; Protein DNA Binding; Protein Expression; Protein Transport; PTGS2 Protein, Human; Raw 264.7 Cells; Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cell Line; Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction; Signal Transduction; Traditional Medicine; Transcription Factor Rela; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha; Western Blotting
- Background: Poria cocos Wolf, a medicinal fungus, is widely used in traditional medicines in East Asian countries owing to its various therapeutic potentials. Although several studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of this fungus, its underlying mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined.Methods: In the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of P. cocos (EEPC) in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As inflammatory parameters, the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were evaluated. We also examined the EEPC's effect on the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway.Results: Our results indicated that EEPC exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on NO production and inhibits PGE2 release in LPS-induced macrophages without affecting cell viability. EEPC also significantly attenuated LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. Additionally, LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, IL-1β, and TNF-α was decreased by pre-treatment with EEPC at the transcriptional level. Moreover, EEPC clearly inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunits, which correlated with EEPC's inhibitory effects on inhibitor kappaB (IκB) degradation. Moreover, EEPC clearly suppressed the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB, as well as the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65, which correlated with EEPC's inhibitory effects on inhibitor kappaB (IκB) degradation.Conclusions: Taken together, our data indicates that EEPC targets the inflammatory response of macrophages via inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and TNF-α through inactivation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, supporting the pharmacological basis of P. cocos as a traditional herbal medicine for treatment of inflammation and its associated disorders. © 2014 Jeong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
- BioMed Central Ltd.
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