Ixeris dentata (Thunb. ex Thunb.) Nakai (Asteraceae), a well-known edible vegetable in Asia, contains various bioactive secondary metabolites, including sesquiterpene lactones. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of seven sesquiterpene lactone glucosides isolated from the roots of I. dentata. In addition, these compounds were evaluated in terms of their antiviral activities against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and human enterovirus 71 (EV71). The developed method was validated in terms of linearity (R-2 > 0.9996), precision (RSD < 2.24%), accuracy (96.30-102.77%), and stability (RSD < 1.94%) and successfully applied to the quantitation of the I. dentata root samples collected from six different regions of Korea. The content of sesquiterpene lactone glucosides varied significantly based on the region. For the antiviral activities, guaianolides with an ester group at C-8 (compounds 6 and 7) showed the most potent activities against CBV3, while germacranolide (compound 5) showed the most consistent antiviral activity against both CVB3 and EV71. The method was validated to be simple and reliable to simultaneously determine seven putative bioactive sesquiterpene lactone glucosides, the substantial chemotaxonomic markers, in I. dentata root samples.