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The sp(3)/sp(2) carbon ratio as a modulator of in vivo and in vitro toxicity of the chemically purified detonation-synthesized nanodiamond via the reactive oxygen species generation

Title
The sp(3)/sp(2) carbon ratio as a modulator of in vivo and in vitro toxicity of the chemically purified detonation-synthesized nanodiamond via the reactive oxygen species generation
Authors
Lee, Dong-KeunHa, SangwookJeon, SoyeonJeong, JiyoungKim, Dong-JaeLee, Seung WhanCho, Wan-Seob
Issue Date
2020-09
Citation
Nanotoxicology, 14(9), 1213-1226
Type
Article
Article Type
Article
Author Keywords
Nanodiamondsp(3)sp(2)ratioreactive oxygen speciesinflammationcytotoxicity
Keywords
METAL-OXIDE NANOPARTICLESSURFACE-CHEMISTRYIN-VITROCARBONPURIFICATIONTOXICITYLIGHTRISK
ISSN
1743-5390
Abstract
Nanodiamonds have been suggested as biocompatible materials and are suitable for various biomedical applications, but little is known about how to synthesize safer nanodiamonds. Herein, seven different detonation-synthesized nanodiamonds (DNDs) with sequential sp3/sp2 carbon ratios were assembled by controlling the chemical purification parameters and the role of sp3/sp2 carbon ratio on the toxicity of DNDs was investigated. Carbon black and nickel oxide nanoparticles were used as reference particles. The intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential of DNDs was estimated by a 2′7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay, and these values showed a good negative correlation with the sp3/sp2 carbon ratios, which implies that ROS generation increased as the sp3/sp2 carbon ratio decreased. As a model to investigate inflammogenic potential of DND samples, a rat intratracheal instillation model was used as the lung is very sensitive to nanoparticle exposures. The sp3/sp2 carbon ratios or the estimated values of ROS generation potential showed excellent linear correlations with the number of neutrophils and pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 24 h after instillation. Treatment of DND samples to THP-1 derived macrophages also showed that the sp3/sp2 carbon ratios or the estimated values of ROS generation potential were closely related with the toxicity endpoints such as cell viability and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the sp3/sp2 carbon ratio is the key determinant for the toxicity of DNDs, which can be a useful tool for the safer-by-design approach of DNDs and the safety assessment of carbon nanoparticles. © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11750/12837
DOI
10.1080/17435390.2020.1813825
Publisher
Informa Healthcare
Files:
There are no files associated with this item.
Collection:
ETC1. Journal Articles


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