This paper examines the development and social diffusion of technological innovation for national emergency management. Innovations have been developed in the interactive processes among technology, market and social context. On the basis of two case studies of innovations for disaster management, this paper investigates innovation processes within social contexts and the role of innovation actors such as government, private sector and citizens in the development and diffusion of the innovations. Through these cases its shown how innovations in emergency/disaster management could be developed under social contexts utilising 'open innovation' frameworks popular in private sector. The cases also show how end-users can participate in the innovation processes in public sector. Finally, the paper suggests implications to accelerate and increase innovations for social welfare and social change.