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Anatomical and neurochemical organization of the serotonergic system in the mammalian brain and in particular the involvement of the dorsal raphe nucleus in relation to neurological diseases

Title
Anatomical and neurochemical organization of the serotonergic system in the mammalian brain and in particular the involvement of the dorsal raphe nucleus in relation to neurological diseases
Authors
Steinbusch, Hendrik Wilhelm MariaDolatkhah, Mohammad AminHopkins, David A.
DGIST Authors
Steinbusch, Hendrik Wilhelm Maria; Dolatkhah, Mohammad Amin; Hopkins, David A.
Issue Date
2021
Citation
Progress in Brain Research, 261, 41-81
Type
Article
Author Keywords
Dorsal raphe nucleusSerotoninDepressionAlzheimer’s diseaseNeuroanatomyNeurodegenerative diseasesParkinson’s diseaseBrainstemAutonomic nervous system
Keywords
CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEMHISTAMINE-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITYTRANSPORT FOLLOWING INJECTIONNITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASENECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHASUBSTANCE-PCONTAINING NEURONSMAJOR DEPRESSIONRAT-BRAINRECEPTOR SUBTYPES
ISSN
0079-6123
Abstract
The brainstem is a neglected brain area in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and autonomic dysfunction. In Depression, several observations have been made in relation to changes in one particular the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus (DRN) which also points toward as key area in various age-related and neurodevelopmental diseases. The DRN is further thought to be related to stress regulated processes and cognitive events. It is involved in neurodegeneration, e.g., amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and impaired synaptic transmission in Alzheimer's disease as shown in our autopsy findings. The DRN is a phylogenetically old brain area, with projections that reach out to a large number of regions and nuclei of the central nervous system, particularly in the forebrain. These ascending projections contain multiple neurotransmitters. One of the main reasons for the past and current interest in the DRN is its involvement in depression, and its main transmitter serotonin. The DRN also points toward the increased importance and focus of the brainstem as key area in various age-related and neurodevelopmental diseases. This review describes the morphology, ascending projections and the complex neurotransmitter nature of the DRN, stressing its role as a key research target into the neural bases of depression. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11750/16459
DOI
10.1016/bs.pbr.2021.02.003
Publisher
Elsevier BV
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