MXene is a rapidly emerging group of two-dimensional (2D) multifunctional nanomaterials, drawing huge attention from researchers of a broad scientific field. Reporting the synthesis of MXene was the following breakthrough in 2D materials following the discovery of graphene. MXene is considered the most recent developments of materials, including transition metal carbonitrides, nitrides, and carbides synthesized by etching or mechanical-based exfoliation of selective MAX phases. MXene has a plethora of prodigious properties such as unique interlayer spacing, high ion and electron transport, large surface area, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity, exceptional volumetric capacitance, thermal shock, and oxidation resistance, easily machinable and inherently hydrophilic, and biocompatibility. Owing to the abundance of tailorable surface function groups, these properties can be further enhanced by surface functionalization with covalent and non-covalent modifications via numerous surface functionalization methods. Therefore, MXene finds their way to a plethora of applications in numerous fields including catalysis, membrane separation, energy storage, sensing, and biomedicine. Here, the focus is on reviewing the structure, synthesis techniques, and functionalization methods of MXene. Furthermore, MXene-based detection platforms in different sensing applications are survived. Great attention is given to reviewing the applications of MXene in the detection of biomolecules, pathogenic bacteria and viruses, cancer biomarkers food contaminants and mycotoxins, and hazardous pollutants. Lastly, the future perspective of MXene-based biosensors as a next-generation diagnostics tool is discussed. Crucial visions are introduced for materials science and sensing communities to better route while investigating the potential of MXene for creating innovative detection mechanisms.