Diphenylalanine (FF) is a piezoelectric material that is widely known for its high piezoelectric constant, self-assembly characteristics, and ease of manufacture. Because of its biocompatible nature, it is useful for implantable applications. However, its use in real applications is challenging because it degrades too easily in the body due to its solubility in water (0.76 g/mL). Upon incorporation of hydrophobic and biocompatible porphyrins into the FF, the degradability of the piezoelectric FF and their piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) is controlled. Porphyrin-incorporated FFs are also formed as piezoelectric nanostructures well aligned on the substrate through self-assembly, and their piezoelectric properties are comparable to those of FF. The FF-based PENG degrades in only 5 min, whereas the FF-porphyrin-based PENG produces a stable output for >15 min in phosphatebuffered saline. This strategy for realizing biodegradable functional materials and devices with tunable degradation rates in the body can be applied to many implantable electronics.
Energy Harvesting; Synthesis of Various Nano/Microstructured Energy Materials; Piezoelectric Generator; Triboelectric Generator; Bio-Compatible Energy Materials and Generator; Biomimetic Biomolecule based Energy Materials and Devices