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An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility
- An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility
- Wadud, Zahid; Hussain, Sajjad; Javaid, Nadeem; Bouk, Safdar Hussain; Alrajeh, Nabil; Alabed, Mohamad Souheil; Guizani, Nadra
- Issue Date
- Sensors, 17(10)
- Article Type
- Acoustic Devices; Acoustic Equipment; End-2-End Delay (E2ED); Energy Consumption; Energy Hole; Energy Holes; Energy Utilization; Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (IUASNs); Network Lifetime; Routing; Sensor Networks; Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks; Underwater Acoustics; Vectors
- Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (IUASNs) come with intrinsic challenges like long propagation delay, small bandwidth, large energy consumption, three-dimensional deployment, and high deployment and battery replacement cost. Any routing strategy proposed for IUASN must take into account these constraints. The vector based forwarding schemes in literature forward data packets to sink using holding time and location information of the sender, forwarder, and sink nodes. Holding time suppresses data broadcasts; however, it fails to keep energy and delay fairness in the network. To achieve this, we propose an Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding (ESEVBF) scheme. ESEVBF uses the residual energy of the node to scale and vector pipeline distance ratio to expand the holding time. Resulting scaled and expanded holding time of all forwarding nodes has a significant difference to avoid multiple forwarding, which reduces energy consumption and energy balancing in the network. If a node has a minimum holding time among its neighbors, it shrinks the holding time and quickly forwards the data packets upstream. The performance of ESEVBF is analyzed through in network scenario with and without node mobility to ensure its effectiveness. Simulation results show that ESEVBF has low energy consumption, reduces forwarded data copies, and less end-to-end delay. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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