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Electron beam modification of anode materials for high-rate lithium ion batteries
- Electron beam modification of anode materials for high-rate lithium ion batteries
- Park, Yiseul; Park, Jung Soo; Baek, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jae Hyun
- DGIST Authors
- Baek, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jae Hyun
- Issue Date
- Journal of Power Sources, 296, 109-116
- Article Type
- Anodes; Ball Milling; Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds; Electric Batteries; Electric Conductivity; Electrical Conductivity; Electrodes; Electron Beam; Electron Beam Irradiation; Electron Beam Modification; Electron Beams; Electrons; High Rate Capability; Ions; Irradiation; Lithium; Lithium-Ion Batteries; Lithium Alloys; Lithium Compounds; Lithium Ion Battery; Lithium Titanium Oxide; Organic Polymers; Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride)(PVDF); Systematic Experiment; Titanium Oxides
- The rate capability of a Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)-based anode in a lithium ion battery can be easily improved by electron beam (EB) irradiation without the need for complicated synthetic procedures. The electrode prepared with EB-irradiated LTO at a 50 kGy dose has an enhanced rate capability while retaining a discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1, even at the 20 C-rate. The effect of EB irradiation on the properties of the anode materials (i.e., LTO, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), super P carbon) is examined in detail through systematic experiments. Both LTO and PVDF are affected by EB irradiation and dependent on the exposed electron dose, but super P is affected negligibly. EB irradiation partially reduces LTO with forming Tix+ (2 < x < 4) which is attributed to the enhanced electrical conductivity. EB irradiation causes dehydrofluorination and cross-linking in PVDF, resulting in the formation of carbon-carbon double bonds. The conjugated structure of PVDF is formed by the further dehydrofluorination during mixing with LTO via ball-milling, and this is accelerated in the presence of EB-PVDF. This conjugated structure enhances the electrical conductivity and is responsible for the improved rate capability. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Elsevier B.V.
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