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The Impairments of alpha-Synuclein and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin in Rotenone-Induced SH-SY5Y Cells and Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease

Title
The Impairments of alpha-Synuclein and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin in Rotenone-Induced SH-SY5Y Cells and Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease
Authors
Ramalingam, MaheshHuh, Yu JinLee, Yun-Il
DGIST Authors
Ramalingam, Mahesh; Huh, Yu Jin; Lee, Yun-Il
Issue Date
2019-09
Citation
Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13
Type
Article
Article Type
Article
Author Keywords
rotenoneSH-SY5Yalpha-synucleinmitofusinstereotaxicmTOR
Keywords
ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASEENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUMANIMAL-MODELSDOPAMINERGIC-NEURONSMAMMALIAN TARGETOXIDATIVE STRESSMTORMITOCHONDRIAAMPKMETABOLISM
ISSN
1662-453X
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). α-synuclein (α-syn) is known to regulate mitochondrial function and both PINK1 and Parkin have been shown to eliminate damaged mitochondria in PD. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is expressed in several distinct subcellular compartments and mediates the effects of nutrients, growth factors, and stress on cell growth. However, the contributions of these various regulators to DAergic cell death have been demonstrated mainly in culture with serum, which is known to dramatically influence endogenous growth rate and toxin susceptibility through nutrient and growth factor signaling. Therefore, we compared neurotoxicity induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone (ROT, 5 or 10 μM for 24 h) in SH-SY5Y cells cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% FBS, or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, serum-free). In addition, C57BL/6J mice were injected with 12 μg ROT into the right striatum, and brains examined by histology and Western blotting 2 weeks later for evidence of DAergic cell death and the underlying signaling mechanisms. ROT dose-dependently reduced SH-SY5Y cell viability in all serum groups without a significant effect of serum concentration. ROT injection also significantly reduced immunoreactivity for the DAergic cell marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in both the mouse striatum and SNpc. Western blotting revealed that ROT inhibited TH and Parkin expression while increasing α-syn and PINK1 expression in both SH-SY5Y cells and injected mice, consistent with disruption of mitochondrial function. Moreover, expression levels of the mTOR signaling pathway components mTORC, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), ULK1, and ATG13 were altered in ROT-induced PD. Further, serum level influenced mTOR signaling in the absence of ROT and the changes in response to ROT. Signs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and altered expression of tethering proteins mediating mitochondria-associated ER contacts (MAMs) were also altered concomitant with ROT-induced neurodegeneration. Taken together, this study demonstrates that complex mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction, altered mTOR nutrient-sensing pathways, ER stress, and disrupted MAM protein dynamics are involved in DAergic neurodegeneration in response to ROT. © Copyright © 2019 Ramalingam, Huh and Lee.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11750/10814
DOI
10.3389/fnins.2019.01028
Publisher
Frontiers Media S.A.
Related Researcher
Files:
Collection:
Well Aging Research Center1. Journal Articles
Division of Biotechnology1. Journal Articles


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