Monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been implicated in neuroinflammation, and therapies targeting MAO are of interest for neurodegenerative diseases. The small-molecule drug tranylcypromine, an inhibitor of MAO, is currently used as an antidepressant and in the treatment of cancer. However, whether tranylcypromine can regulate LPS- and/or Aβ-induced neuroinflammation in the brain has not been well-studied. In the present study, we found that tranylcypromine selectively altered LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine levels in BV2 microglial cells but not primary astrocytes. In addition, tranylcypromine modulated LPS-mediated TLR4/ERK/STAT3 signaling to alter neuroinflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells. Importantly, tranylcypromine significantly reduced microglial activation as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in LPS-injected wild-type mice. Moreover, injection of tranylcypromine in 5xFAD mice (a mouse model of AD) significantly decreased microglial activation but had smaller effects on astrocyte activation. Taken together, our results suggest that tranylcypromine can suppress LPS- and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo.