Cadherins contribute to the organization of nearly all tissues, but the functions of several evolutionarily conserved cadherins, including those of calsyntenins, remain enigmatic. Puzzlingly, two distinct, non-overlapping functions for calsyntenins were proposed: As postsynaptic neurexin ligands in synapse formation, or as presynaptic kinesin adaptors in vesicular transport. Here, we show that, surprisingly, acute CRISPR-mediated deletion of calsyntenin-3 in mouse cerebellum in vivo causes a large decrease in inhibitory synapse, but a robust increase in excitatory parallel-fiber synapses in Purkinje cells. As a result, inhibitory synaptic transmission was suppressed, whereas parallel-fiber synaptic transmission was enhanced in Purkinje cells by the calsyntenin-3 deletion. No changes in the dendritic architecture of Purkinje cells or in climbing-fiber synapses were detected. Sparse selective deletion of calsyntenin-3 only in Purkinje cells recapitulated the synaptic phenotype, indicating that calsyntenin-3 acts by a cell-autonomous postsynaptic mechanism in cerebellum. Thus, by promoting formation of excitatory parallel-fiber synapses and decreasing formation of inhibitory synapses in the same neuron, calsyntenin-3 functions as a postsynaptic adhesion molecule that regulates the excitatory/inhibitory balance in Purkinje cells.