N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibits peripheral nerve degeneration (PND) by targeting Schwann cells in a hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-pathway-dependent manner, but the underlying molecular and pharmacological mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the effect of NEM, an alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxyl compound, on H2S signaling in in vitro- and ex vivo-dedifferentiated Schwann cells using global proteomics (LC-MS) and transcriptomics (whole-genome and small RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq)) methods. The multi-omics analyses identified several genes and proteins related to oxidative stress, such as Sod1, Gnao1, Stx4, Hmox2, Srxn1, and Edn1. The responses to oxidative stress were transcriptionally regulated by several transcription factors, such as Atf3, Fos, Rela, and Smad2. In a functional enrichment analysis, cell cycle, oxidative stress, and lipid/cholesterol metabolism were enriched, implicating H2S signaling in Schwann cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and myelination. NEM-induced changes in the H2S signaling pathway affect oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and the cell cycle in Schwann cells. Therefore, regulation of the H2S signaling pathway by NEM during PND could prevent Schwann cell demyelination, dedifferentiation, and proliferation.