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Avalanche and Bit Independence Properties of Photon-counting Double Random Phase Encoding in Gyrator Domain
- Avalanche and Bit Independence Properties of Photon-counting Double Random Phase Encoding in Gyrator Domain
- Lee, Ji Eun; Sultana, Nishat; Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu
- DGIST Authors
- Moon, Inkyu
- Issue Date
- Current Optics and Photonics, 2(4), 368-377
- Article Type
- Author Keywords
- Double random phase encoding; Discrete Gyrator transform; Optical security; Photon counting imaging; Avalanche and bit independence criterion
- OPTICAL-IMAGE ENCRYPTION; TRANSFORM DOMAIN; CONVOLUTION OPERATION; ONLY ATTACK; AUTHENTICATION; MASK; ALGORITHM; SECURITY; FOURIER; SCHEME
- In this paper, we evaluate cryptographic properties of a double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme in the discrete Gyrator domain with avalanche and bit independence criterions. DRPE in the discrete Gyrator domain is reported to have higher security than traditional DRPE in the Fourier domain because the rotation angle involved in the Gyrator transform is viewed as additional secret keys. However, our numerical experimental results demonstrate that the DRPE in the discrete Gyrator domain has an excellent bit independence feature but does not possess a good avalanche effect property and hence needs to be improved to satisfy with acceptable avalanche effect that would be robust against statistical-based cryptanalysis. We compare our results with the avalanche and bit independence criterion (BIC) performances of the conventional DRPE scheme, and improve the avalanche effect of DRPE in the discrete Gyrator domain by integrating a photon counting imaging technique. Although the Gyrator transform-based image cryptosystem has been studied, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a cryptographic evaluation of discrete Gyrator transform with avalanche and bit independence criterions. © 2018 Current Optics and Photonics.
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Intelligent Imaging and Vision Systems Laboratory
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