Photocatalytic production of solar fuels from CO2 is a promising strategy for addressing global environmental problems and securing future energy supplies. Although extensive research has been conducted to date, numerous impediments to realizing efficient, selective, and stable CO2 reduction have yet to be overcome. This comprehensive review highlights the recent advances in CO2 photoreduction, including critical challenges such as light-harvesting, charge separation, and the activation of CO2 molecules. We present promising strategies for enhancing the photocatalytic activities and discuss theoretical insights and equations for quantifying photocatalytic performance, which are expected to afford a fundamental understanding of CO2 photoreduction. We then provide a thorough overview of both traditional photocatalysts such as metal oxides and state-of-the-art catalysts such as metal-organic frameworks and 2D materials, followed by a discussion of the origin of carbon in CO2 photoreduction as a means to further understand the reaction mechanism. Finally, we discuss the economic viability of photocatalytic CO2 reduction before concluding the review with proposed future research directions.
CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuels; Water splitting for hydrogen generation; Quantum dot devices; Dye sensitized solar cells; Environmental remediation; Synthesis of functional nanomaterials; CO2 연료전환; 수소생산을 위한 광전기화학적 물분해; 양자점 태양전지; 염료감응 태양전지; 공해물질 저감연구; 기능성 나노소재 개발