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Modeling and Analysis of Human Cardiovascular Dynamics

Title
Modeling and Analysis of Human Cardiovascular Dynamics
Alternative Title
인간 심혈관계 역학 모델링 및 분석
Author(s)
Young Woo An
DGIST Authors
Young Woo AnYongsoon EunLucy Youngmin Eun
Advisor
은용순
Co-Advisor(s)
Lucy Youngmin Eun
Issued Date
2021
Awarded Date
2021/02
Type
Thesis
Subject
Cardiovascular system mathematical modeling, Hemodynamics, Aging simulation, Exercise simulation, Homeostasis system, controller, 심혈관 시스템 수학적 모델링, 혈류역학, 노화 시뮬레이션, 운동 시뮬레이션, 항 상성 시스템, 제어기
Abstract
In this thesis, mathematical modeling was applied to the cardiovascular system of the human body, a simple cardiovascular model was developed to an extended cardiovascular model, including major organs, and a controller was added to apply a blood flow homeostasis maintenance system. The blood flow homeostasis maintenance system is an essential element in applying various situations such as aging, rest, and exercise. The blood flow and blood pressure flowing through each part were considered in the mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system, and the heart was modeled as a pump that prevents the backflow. A simple cardiovascular model could obtain results that match the actual human blood pressure, blood flow, and cardiac output. The extended cardiovascular model, including major organs, was modeled by considering the percentage of blood flow through each organ. As a result, the blood flow through each organ was consistent with physiological data.
A controller was designed to apply the system for maintaining blood flow in this model. The controller consists of a heart rate controller and a heart contractility controller, and a PI controller that is widely used in the industry was used. To prevent the variance of heart rate during a heartbeat, it is designed to be controlled after the heartbeat. And we confirmed that the controller works properly using a step response.
Aging was applied to the model, which includes the homeostasis system. When aging occurs, the function of the heart and blood vessels radius decreases. According to the papers on the degree of aging according to the age 25, 40, 55 years old – 15 years of age interval was applied to the model. As a result, it was possible to confirm the phenomenon that occurs when the actual human body aging progresses through simulation.
Finally, we simulated with medium intensity exercise condition according to the aging of the cardiovascular system. It was confirmed that the heart rate and cardiac output increased as the exercise was performed, and the heart rate decreased as taking a rest. This result is accordant with the actual human body. As a result, by using simulation, actual changes in the human body, according to aging, rest, and exercise, were applied to the simulation model. We validated the current model by applying actual aging, rest, and exercise situations. In further studies, this model will be extended by adding new loops – such as gas exchange, blood sugar control, and electrolyte balance maintenance. Establishing the presented model has been very worthwhile since this could be key to any extended model by adding various factors.
Table Of Contents
Abstract ii
List of Contents vi
List of Figures viii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Previous Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Control Based Homeostasis System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Aging Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Exercise Simulation According to Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.7 Thesis Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Physiological Background 7
2.1 Cardiovascular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 The Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Cardiac Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 Cardiac Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.5 Cardiac Contractility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3 Mathematical Modeling of Cardiovascular Dynamics 15
3.1 Heart Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2 Heart Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3 Basic Blood Vessel Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.4 Blood Flow Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.5 Extended Cardiovascular Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4 Cardiovascular Model Simulation and Validation 25
4.1 Cardiovascular Model Simulation Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2 Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5 Blood Flow Controller Design 29
5.1 Heart Rate Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2 Heart Contractility Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.3 Blood Flow Step Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.4 Heart Rate Control Limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6 Aging Simulation 37
6.1 Aging Effect and Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.2 Aging Simulation Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6.3 Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7 Exercise Simulation According to Aging 45
7.1 Exercise Conditions According to age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.2 Simulation Result and Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8 Conclusion 53
Bibliography 59
국문초록 61
URI
http://dgist.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000361604

http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11750/16639
DOI
10.22677/thesis.200000361604
Degree
Master
Department
Information and Communication Engineering
Publisher
DGIST
Related Researcher
  • 은용순 Eun, Yongsoon 전기전자컴퓨터공학과
  • Research Interests Resilient control systems; Control systems with nonlinear sensors and actuators; Quasi-linear control systems; Intelligent transportation systems; Networked control systems
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Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Theses Master

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