Cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 in motor neurons is the most prominent pathological feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A feedback cycle between nucleocytoplasmic transport (NCT) defect and TDP-43 aggregation was shown to contribute to accumulation of TDP-43 in the cytoplasm. However, little is known about cellular factors that can control the activity of NCT, thereby affecting TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm. In this study, I found that TDP-43 shows cell type-dependent variation in its localization and can undergo dynamic and reversible changes in its localization during development, one of the major cellular events, in Drosophila sensory neurons. Furthermore, I identified cytosolic calcium as a key cellular factor controlling NCT of TDP-43 via FRAP and optogenetics. Genetic and immunohistochemical analyses identified the cytosolic calcium-Calpain-A-Importin α3 pathway as a regulatory mechanism underlying NCT of TDP-43. In C9orf72 ALS fly models, upregulation of the pathway activity by increasing cytosolic calcium reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 and mitigated behavioral defects. Together, these results suggest the calcium-Calpain-A-Importin α3 pathway as a potential therapeutic target of ALS.
Table Of Contents
Abstract i List of contents ii List of tables iv List of figures v
Ⅰ. Introduction 1.1 Proper nucleocytoplasmic localization of TDP-43 is important for neuronal function 1 1.2 A feedback cycle between nucleocytoplasmic transport defect and TDP-43 aggregation was proposed as a model to explain the cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 2 1.3 TDP-43 localization can be dynamically changed upon cellular demands 3 II. Materials and Methods 5 III. Results 3.1 Proportions of nucleus- and cytoplasm-localized TBPH vary with cell type and developmental stage in Drosophila neurons 15 3.2 Cytosolic calcium mediates nucleocytoplasmic translocation of TBPH 24 3.3 Calcium-dependent regulators and nuclear import components regulate nucleocytoplasmic translocation of TBPH 50 3.4 Calpain-A controls the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Importin α3 60 3.5 An untimely nuclear mis-localization of TDP-43 in larval C4 da neurons is associated with dysregulation of dendrite arborization 71 3.6 Increased cytosolic calcium restores defects in TBPH localization and larval locomotion in C9orf72 ALS models 87 IV. Discussion 95 V. References 107 VI. Summary in Korean (국문) 114