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An Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Associated Diseases
- An Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Associated Diseases
- Bhandary, Bidur; Marahatta, Anu; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung
- DGIST Authors
- Kim, Hyung-Ryong
- Issue Date
- International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(1), 434-456
- Article Type
- ER stress; ER stress associated disease; ER associated oxidative stress; disulfide bond formation; PDI; ERO-1 alpha; mitochondria electron transport chain; UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE; PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE; PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA; NF-KAPPA-B; ER STRESS; ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE; NITRIC-OXIDE; MACULAR DEGENERATION; MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATION
- The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of calcium storage and protein folding. It has a unique oxidizing-folding environment due to the predominant disulfide bond formation during the process of protein folding. Alterations in the oxidative environment of the ER and also intra-ER Ca2+ cause the production of ER stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Protein disulfide isomerases, endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin-1, reduced glutathione and mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins also play crucial roles in ER stress-induced production of ROS. In this article, we discuss ER stress-associated ROS and related diseases, and the current understanding of the signaling transduction involved in ER stress.© 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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