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dc.contributor.advisor Su-Il In - HANSAEM CHOI - 2018-08-29T02:00:55Z - 2018-08-29T02:00:55Z - 2018 -
dc.identifier.uri en_US
dc.identifier.uri -
dc.description.abstract The paradigm of modern medicines, which is mainly about chemotherapy, shows limits caused by side effect, temporary therapeutic efficacy and drug resistance. Over the three thousands of chemicals have been used as chemotherapeutic treatment and some of them have contaminated environment and destroyed the ecology, as residual drug which is called ‘Xenobiotics’. So acupuncture an oriental medicine, which has been used as a complementary and alternative medical treatment is attracting attention.

Acupuncture needle begins to be employed from 6000 BC, which is believed to be, by insertion of sharpened stone, bamboo, and bone. It is a medical device which converts physical energy to vital energy by needle insertion in the skin. However, most of plausible mechanisms cannot explain its actual action clearly yet. Although acupuncture is unexplainable therapeutic system, it has been adopted in various types of illnesses as a kind of effective therapy. One of the reasons, acupuncture needle is attracting attention is its environment friendly and sustainable treatment technique which does not have side effects due to physical stimulation rather than chemotherapy.

Recently, it has been proved that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture needle in the treatment of four major serious illnesses such as cancer, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and Lou Gehrig’s disease expect to be a sustainable treatment without side effects due to physical stimulation energy instead of chemotherapy. Increasing surface area and development of quantum mechanical stimulation modeled functional nanoparticles such as magnetic field, fluorescence and surface plasmonic effect will be a new breakthrough in the premises of modern medicines For this reason, it is urgent to develop various acupuncture needle based on modern technology. At this point, nanotechnology-based acupuncture research will innovate new class of acupuncture needle as a game changer in medical field

Hence motivated, we have electrochemically anodized acupuncture needle to engrave a large number of concave holes to get porous acupuncture needle (PAN). The hierarchical micro/nanostructured surface provoked enhanced stimulation intensity with surface area approximately 20 times higher than conventional acupuncture needle (CAN). The effect of high surface area stimulation in rats, showed PAN to be more powerful in acupuncture efficacy.

In the case of drug addiction treatment such as of alcohol and cocaine, electrophysiological and behavioral responses from in vivo stimulation of HT7 acupoint proved that PAN significantly reduced drug withdrawal symptoms in animal model more than CAN. In addition, the molecular biological changes adduced by PAN found to be inhibiting the growth and elimination of cancer cells. PAN is confirmed as neurophysiological excellence than CAN and opened the possibility of treatment for severe disease.

Second, Noble metal nanoparticle such as gold, silver and platinum have elicited numbers of interesting results for significant biomedical applications due to their inertness and electrical properties. Electrochemical deposition method is utilized for nano particle deposition of noble metal on the surface of PAN and CAN. The nanoparticles enhanced its surface area and reduced impedance than PAN. These properties, in comparison to CAN, induced more neuron activity.
dc.description.statementofresponsibility open -
dc.description.tableofcontents Chapter 1. Introduction 1--
1.1. Research Background 1--
1.2. ‘De Qi’ response for Activation of Vital Energy 2--
1.3. Research Approaches 3--
1.3.1 Hierarchical Micro/Nano-Porous Acupuncture Needles 4--
1.3.2 Nanoscale Deposition of Noble Metal Particles on Acupuncture Needles 4--
1.4. References 5--
Chapter 2. Characterization Techniques and Tools 8--
2.1. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) 8--
2.2. Potentiostat 10--
2.3. X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) 12--
2.4. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) 14--
2.5. Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) 15--
2.6.Carbon filament-filled single glass microelectrode 16--
2.7. Mechanical Acupuncture Instrument 19--
2.8. Force transducer 21--
2.9.Ultrasonic Vocalization(USV) 23--
2.10. Light Microscopy 25--
2.11. IHC (Immuno-histo-chemical) method 27--
2.12. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunological Assay) kit 29--
2.13. Reference 31--
Chapter 3. Hierarchical Micro/Nano-Porous Acupuncture Needle 33--
3.1 Introduction 33--
3.2 Experimental Section 36--
3.2.1 Chemicals and materials 36--
3.2.2 Fabrication of Porous Acupucnture Needle 36--
3.2.3 Fabrication of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 36--
3.2.4 Characterization of Porous Acupuncture Needle 37
3.2.5 Characterization of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 37--
3.2.6 Calculation of Specific Surface Area of Acupuncture Needle 38--
3.2.7 Surface Analysis of Stainless Steel Acupuncture Needle 42--
3.3 Results and Discussion 43--
3.3.1 Morphological analysis of Porous Acupuncturee Needle 43--
3.3.2 Specific surface area of Porous Acupuncture Needle 45--
3.3.3 Electrochemical analysis of Porous Acupuncture Needle 45--
3.3.4 Electrophysiological Evaluation ormance of Porous Acupuncture Needle 47--
3.3.5 Therapeutic Performance of Porous Acupuncturee Needle 48--
3.3.6 Morphological analysis of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 50--
3.3.7 Specific surface area of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 51--
3.3.8 Electrochemical analysis of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 52--
3.3.9 Therapeutic Performance of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 53--
3.4 Conclusions 56--
3.5 References 59--
Chapter 4. Nanoscale Deposition of Noble Metal Particles on Acupuncture Needle 63--
4.1 Introduction 63--
4.2 Experimental section 64--
4.2.1 Chemicals and materials 64--
4.2.2 Fabrication of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited Porous Hand Acupucnture Needle 65--
4.2.3 Characterization of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited Porous Hand Acupucnture Needle 66--
4.3 Results and discussion 67--
4.3.1 Characterization of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited Acupuncture Needles 67--
4.3.2 Therapeutic Performance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited on Hand Acupuncture Needles 74--
4.4 Conclusions 76--
4.5 References 77--
Chapter 5. Investigation for Manufacture of Hierarchical Micro/Nano-porous Acupucnture Needle 78--
5.1. Introduction 78--
5.2. Study on Influential Factors of Electrochemical Anodization 79--
5.2.1 Voltage 79--
5.2.2 Electrolyte Volume 80--
5.2.3 Anodization Time 81--
5.2.4 Reuse of Electrolyte 83--
5.2.5 Reuse of Carbon Paper 85--
5.3. Automation Process Equipment 87--
5.3.1 Auto Anodizing Apparatus 87--
5.3.2 Auto Mass Production Anodization System 91--
5.4. Conclusions 102--
5.5. References 103
dc.format.extent 106 -
dc.language eng -
dc.publisher DGIST -
dc.subject Acupuncture needle, Anodization, Porous acupuncture needle, High surface area, Noble metal nanoparticles. -
dc.title Surface-Modified Acupuncture Needles Offering Enhanced Therapeutic Properties -
dc.title.alternative 나노 기술을 기반으로 표면 처리된 한방침의 치료 효능 -
dc.type Thesis -
dc.identifier.doi 10.22677/thesis.200000102670 -
dc.description.alternativeAbstract 화학 치료요법 위주의 현대의학은 즉각적인 치료 효과로 수많은 인기를 끌었지만, 일시적인 효능과 부작용, 그리고, 약제 내성으로 인한 문제점을 불러일으켰다. 화학적 치료요법은 의약물질로 승인받은 3,000여개 이상의 화학종이 의약품으로 사용되고 있으며, 그 중 일부는 ‘제노바이오틱스’의 형태로 난분해성인데다 먹이 사슬을 통해 체내에 축적되어 생태계를 파괴하며, 배설물을 통해 배출되어 환경을 오염시킨다. 이러한 문제로 인해 항암제의 부작용을 치료 및 통증을 완화시켜주는 용도로 활용되던 대체보완의학 한방침이 새롭게 주목받고 있다.

침술은 기원전6,000년에서부터 뾰족한 모양의 돌, 대나무, 뼈 등의 형태의 침을 이용하여 활용되기 시작했다. 침술은 피부에 침을 삽입하는 과정에서 물리적 자극 에너지를 생체 에너지로 변환하여, 치료 효능을 보인다. 하지만, 아직 그 기전이 정확히 밝혀지지 않아 명확히 설명할 수 없으나, 한방침은 다양한 질병에서 뛰어난 효능을 보여 오랜 시간 활용되어 왔다. 이러한, 한방침이 주목받는 이유 중 하나는 약물에 의한 치료가 아닌 물리적 자극에 의한 치료로 부작용이 없는 친환경적이고, 지속가능한 치료 기술이기 때문이다. 이러한 이유로 다양한 한방침 및 이의 기술 개발이 시급한 상황이다. 이러한 시점에서 나노 기술 기반 한방침 연구는 의학계의 판도를 바꿀 새로운 한방침 기술 혁신이 될 것이다.

첫번째, 전기화학적 표면처리방법인 양극산화한 한방침은 표면에 내부로 함몰된 형태의 구멍(hole)이 다량으로 형성된 한방침이다. 이러한, 마이크로내지 나노 크기의 다공성 표면 구조는 기존의 침보다 20배 넓은 유효 표면적으로 인해 한방침 자극 세기를 향상시킨다. 이러한 넓은 표면적으로 인한 다공성 침의 치료 효능은 동물 실험에서 큰 효과를 보였다. 알코올과 코카인 같은 약물 중독에 경우, 동물 모델의 HT7 경혈 자리에 한방침을 자침함에 따른 전기생리학적 그리고, 행동학적 분석을 통해 기존의 침보다 다공성 침이 약물 금단 현상을 대폭 감소시켰다. 또한, 분자생물학적 지표의 변화 분석을 통해 다공성 침이 암세포의 성장 억제 및 제거에도 큰 효과가 있음을 증명했다. 다공성 침이 기존의 침보다 신경 생리학적 우수성을 입증했기 때문에 중증 질환에 대한 치료 가능성을 보였다.

금, 은, 백금 등 귀금속 나노 입자는 전기화학적 특성으로 인해 중요한 생체 의학분야에서 흥미로운 결과를 만들어왔다. 기존의 침과 다공성 침의 표면에 귀금속 나노 입자를 도금 시키는데 전기화학적 도금 방법이 활용되었다. 도금된 나노입자들은 기존의 다공성 침의 높은 표면적을 더 증가시켰으며 귀금속의 전기화학적 특성으로 인한 임피던스의 감소를 보였다. 이러한 특성들은 기존의 침보다 신경 세포의 반응 활성도를 증가시켰다.

최근, 알츠하이머, 중풍, 암, 루게릭병 등 4대 중증 질환에서 한방침의 효능이 입증되었다. 이는 약물에 의한 치료가 아닌 물리적 자극 에너지에 의한 치료로 부작용이 없는 지속가능한 치료법으로 기대되고 있다. 이로 인해, 나노 공법을 이용한 표면의 가공법으로 표면적을 극대화하거나 자기장, 형광, 표면 플라즈몬 등등 기능성 나노 입자로 인한 다양한 전자기학 및 양자역학적 자극 방법이 무궁무진하여 발전 가능성이 크며, 현대 의학의 한계점에 대한 새로운 돌파구가 될 것이다.
- Master -
dc.contributor.department Energy Science and Engineering -
dc.contributor.coadvisor Eun-Joo Kim - 2018. 8 -
dc.publisher.location Daegu -
dc.description.database dCollection -
dc.citation XT.EM 최92S 201808 - 2018-07-30 -
dc.contributor.alternativeDepartment 대학원 에너지공학전공 -
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthor Choi, Han Saem -
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthor In, Su Il -
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthor Kim, Eun Joo -
dc.contributor.alternativeName 최한샘 -
dc.contributor.alternativeName 인수일 -
dc.contributor.alternativeName 김은주 -
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