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SSD-Insider: Internal defense of solid-state drive against ransomware with perfect data recovery

SSD-Insider: Internal defense of solid-state drive against ransomware with perfect data recovery
Baek, SungHaJung, Young DonMohaisen, AzizLee, SungjinNyang, DaeHun
DGIST Authors
Lee, Sungjin
Issue Date
IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 875-884
Ransomware is a malware that encrypts victim's data, where the decryption key is released after a ransom is paid by the data owner to the attacker. Many ransomware attacks were reported recently, making anti-ransomware a crucial need in security operation, and an issue for the security community to tackle. In this paper, we propose a new approach to defending against ransomware inside NAND flash-based SSDs. To realize the idea of defense-inside-SSDs, both a lightweight detection technique and a perfect recovery algorithm to be used as a part of SSDs firmware should be developed. To this end, we propose a new set of lightweight behavioral features on ran-somware's overwriting pattern, which are invariant across various ransomwares. Our features rely on observing the block I/O request headers only, and not the payload. For perfect and instant recovery, we also propose using the delayed deletion feature of SSDs, which is intrinsic to NAND flash. To demonstrate their feasibility, we implement our algorithms atop an open-channel SSD as a working prototype called SSD-Insider. In experiments using eight real-world and two in-house ransomwares with various background applications running, SSD-Insider achieved a detection accuracy 0% FRR/FAR in most scenarios, and only 5% FAR when heavy overwriting resembling ransomware's data wiping occurs. SSD-Insider detects ransomware activity within 10s, and recovers instantly an infected SSD within 1s with 0% data loss. The additional software overheads incurred by the SSD-Insider is just 147 ns and 254 ns for 4-KB reads and writes, respectively, which is negligible considering NAND chip latency (50-1000 μs). © 2018 IEEE.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Related Researcher
  • Author Lee, Sungjin Data-Intensive Computing Systems Laboratory
  • Research Interests Computer System, System Software, Storage System, Non-volatile Memory, Flash-based SSD, Distributed Storage Systems
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Department of Information and Communication EngineeringData-Intensive Computing Systems Laboratory2. Conference Papers

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