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Enhanced activity of highly conformal and layered tin sulfide (SnSx) prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on 3D metal scaffold towards high performance supercapacitor electrode
- Enhanced activity of highly conformal and layered tin sulfide (SnSx) prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on 3D metal scaffold towards high performance supercapacitor electrode
- Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Parveen, Nazish; Nandi, Dip K.; Ramesh, Rahul; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Cheon, Taehoon; Kim, Soo-Hyun
- Issue Date
- Scientific Reports, 9(1), 10225
- Article Type
- PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES; ENERGY-STORAGE; THIN-FILMS; GRAPHENE; OXIDE; NANOSHEETS; COMPOSITE; BATTERIES; NANORODS; NITRIDE
- Layered Sn-based chalcogenides and heterostructures are widely used in batteries and photocatalysis, but its utilizations in a supercapacitor is limited by its structural instability and low conductivity. Here, SnSx thin films are directly and conformally deposited on a three-dimensional (3D) Ni-foam (NF) substrate by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using tetrakis(dimethylamino) tin [TDMASn, ((CH3)(2)N)(4)Sn] and H2S that serves as an electrode for supercapacitor without any additional treatment. Two kinds of ALD-SnSx films grown at 160 degrees C and 180 degrees C are investigated systematically by X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All of the characterization results indicate that the films deposited at 160 degrees C and 180 degrees C predominantly consist of hexagonal structured-SnS2 and orthorhombic-SnS phases, respectively. Moreover, the highresolution TEM analyses (HRTEM) reveals the (001) oriented polycrystalline hexagonal-SnS2 layered structure for the films grown at 160 degrees C. The double layer capacitance with the composite electrode of SnSx@ NF grown at 160 degrees C is higher than that of SnSx@ NF at 180 degrees C, while pseudocapacitive Faradaic reactions are evident for both SnSx@ NF electrodes. The superior performance as an electrode is directly linked to the layered structure of SnS2. Further, the optimal thickness of ALD-SnSx thin film is found to be 60 nm for the composite electrode of SnSx@ NF grown at 160 degrees C by controlling the number of ALD cycles. The optimized SnSx@ NF electrode delivers an areal capacitance of 805.5 mF/cm(2) at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm(2) and excellent cyclic stability over 5000 charge/discharge cycles.
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