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Decrease of Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Biomarkers in the Tissue-Mimic 3D Spheroid Culture of Human Lung Cells Exposed to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Decrease of Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Biomarkers in the Tissue-Mimic 3D Spheroid Culture of Human Lung Cells Exposed to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Kim, Eun JooJeon, Won BaeKim, SoonhyunLee, Soo Keun
DGIST Authors
Kim, Eun JooJeon, Won BaeKim, SoonhyunLee, Soo Keun
Issue Date
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 14(5), 3356-3365
Article Type
3D Spheroid CultureAmino AcidsCell-to-Cell SignalingCell CultureCell Line, TumorCell ProliferationCell SignalingCellsCollagenCytochrome C OxidaseDNA MicroarrayElastin-Like Protein (ELP)Elastin-Like ProteinsElectron Transport Complex IVEnzymologyExtracellular MatricesExtracellular Matrix ProteinsGene ExpressionGene Expression ProfilesGeneticsHumanHumansInsulin-Like Growth Factor Binding ProteinsLung NeoplasmsLung TumorMessenger RNAMetabolismMetal NanoparticleMetal NanoparticlesMicroscopy, Electron, ScanningMitochondriaMitochondrionMorphologyMusculoskeletal SystemNanoparticle ToxicityNanoparticlesNanotoxicityOligonucleotide Array Sequence AnalysisOxidative StressOxygenPathologyProtein BCL 2Proto-Oncogene Proteins C-BCL-2Reactive Oxygen MetaboliteReactive Oxygen Species (ROS)Respiratory SystemRNA, MessengerScanning Electron MicroscopyScleroproteinSuperoxide DismutaseThree DimensionalTissueTumor Cell LineTumor MarkerTumor Markers, BiologicalZinc OxideZinc Oxide NanoparticleZinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Common 2-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not adequately represent cell-cell and cell-matrix signaling and substantially different diffusion/transport pathways. To obtain tissue-mimic information on nanoparticle toxicity from in vitro cell tests, we used a 3-dimensional (3D) culture of human lung cells (A549) prepared with elastin-like peptides modified with an arginine-glycine-aspartate motif. The 3D cells showed different cellular phenotypes, gene expression profiles, and functionalities compared to the 2D cultured cells. In gene array analysis, 3D cells displayed the induced extracellular matrix (ECM)-related biological functions such as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular function and maintenance, connective tissue development and function, molecular transport, and tissue morphology. Additionally, the expression of ECM-related molecules, such as laminin, fibronectin, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), was simultaneously induced at both mRNA and protein levels. When 0.08-50 μg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were administered to 2D and 3D cells, the cell proliferation was not significantly changed. The level of molecular markers for oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Bcl-2, ATP synthase, and Complex IV (cytochrome C oxidase), was significantly reduced in 2D culture when exposed to 10 μg/ml ZnO-NPs, but no significant decrease was detected in 3D culture when exposed to the same concentration of ZnO-NPs. In conclusion, the tissue-mimic phenotype and functionality of 3D cells could be achieved through the elevated expression of ECM components. The 3D cells were expected to help to better predict the nanotoxicity of ZnO-NPs at tissue-level by increased cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion and signaling. The tissue-mimic morphology would also be useful to simulate the diffusion/transport of the nanoparticles in vitro. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.
American Scientific Publishers
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