The paradigm of modern medicines, which is mainly about chemotherapy, shows limits caused by side effect, temporary therapeutic efficacy and drug resistance. Over the three thousands of chemicals have been used as chemotherapeutic treatment and some of them have contaminated environment and destroyed the ecology, as residual drug which is called ‘Xenobiotics’. So acupuncture an oriental medicine, which has been used as a complementary and alternative medical treatment is attracting attention.
Acupuncture needle begins to be employed from 6000 BC, which is believed to be, by insertion of sharpened stone, bamboo, and bone. It is a medical device which converts physical energy to vital energy by needle insertion in the skin. However, most of plausible mechanisms cannot explain its actual action clearly yet. Although acupuncture is unexplainable therapeutic system, it has been adopted in various types of illnesses as a kind of effective therapy. One of the reasons, acupuncture needle is attracting attention is its environment friendly and sustainable treatment technique which does not have side effects due to physical stimulation rather than chemotherapy.
Recently, it has been proved that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture needle in the treatment of four major serious illnesses such as cancer, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and Lou Gehrig’s disease expect to be a sustainable treatment without side effects due to physical stimulation energy instead of chemotherapy. Increasing surface area and development of quantum mechanical stimulation modeled functional nanoparticles such as magnetic field, fluorescence and surface plasmonic effect will be a new breakthrough in the premises of modern medicines For this reason, it is urgent to develop various acupuncture needle based on modern technology. At this point, nanotechnology-based acupuncture research will innovate new class of acupuncture needle as a game changer in medical field
Hence motivated, we have electrochemically anodized acupuncture needle to engrave a large number of concave holes to get porous acupuncture needle (PAN). The hierarchical micro/nanostructured surface provoked enhanced stimulation intensity with surface area approximately 20 times higher than conventional acupuncture needle (CAN). The effect of high surface area stimulation in rats, showed PAN to be more powerful in acupuncture efficacy.
In the case of drug addiction treatment such as of alcohol and cocaine, electrophysiological and behavioral responses from in vivo stimulation of HT7 acupoint proved that PAN significantly reduced drug withdrawal symptoms in animal model more than CAN. In addition, the molecular biological changes adduced by PAN found to be inhibiting the growth and elimination of cancer cells. PAN is confirmed as neurophysiological excellence than CAN and opened the possibility of treatment for severe disease.
Second, Noble metal nanoparticle such as gold, silver and platinum have elicited numbers of interesting results for significant biomedical applications due to their inertness and electrical properties. Electrochemical deposition method is utilized for nano particle deposition of noble metal on the surface of PAN and CAN. The nanoparticles enhanced its surface area and reduced impedance than PAN. These properties, in comparison to CAN, induced more neuron activity.
Table Of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction 1-- 1.1. Research Background 1-- 1.2. ‘De Qi’ response for Activation of Vital Energy 2-- 1.3. Research Approaches 3-- 1.3.1 Hierarchical Micro/Nano-Porous Acupuncture Needles 4-- 1.3.2 Nanoscale Deposition of Noble Metal Particles on Acupuncture Needles 4-- 1.4. References 5-- Chapter 2. Characterization Techniques and Tools 8-- 2.1. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) 8-- 2.2. Potentiostat 10-- 2.3. X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) 12-- 2.4. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) 14-- 2.5. Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) 15-- 2.6.Carbon filament-filled single glass microelectrode 16-- 2.7. Mechanical Acupuncture Instrument 19-- 2.8. Force transducer 21-- 2.9.Ultrasonic Vocalization(USV) 23-- 2.10. Light Microscopy 25-- 2.11. IHC (Immuno-histo-chemical) method 27-- 2.12. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunological Assay) kit 29-- 2.13. Reference 31-- Chapter 3. Hierarchical Micro/Nano-Porous Acupuncture Needle 33-- 3.1 Introduction 33-- 3.2 Experimental Section 36-- 3.2.1 Chemicals and materials 36-- 3.2.2 Fabrication of Porous Acupucnture Needle 36-- 3.2.3 Fabrication of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 36-- 3.2.4 Characterization of Porous Acupuncture Needle 37 3.2.5 Characterization of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 37-- 3.2.6 Calculation of Specific Surface Area of Acupuncture Needle 38-- 3.2.7 Surface Analysis of Stainless Steel Acupuncture Needle 42-- 3.3 Results and Discussion 43-- 3.3.1 Morphological analysis of Porous Acupuncturee Needle 43-- 3.3.2 Specific surface area of Porous Acupuncture Needle 45-- 3.3.3 Electrochemical analysis of Porous Acupuncture Needle 45-- 3.3.4 Electrophysiological Evaluation ormance of Porous Acupuncture Needle 47-- 3.3.5 Therapeutic Performance of Porous Acupuncturee Needle 48-- 3.3.6 Morphological analysis of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 50-- 3.3.7 Specific surface area of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 51-- 3.3.8 Electrochemical analysis of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 52-- 3.3.9 Therapeutic Performance of Porous Hand Acupuncture Needle 53-- 3.4 Conclusions 56-- 3.5 References 59-- Chapter 4. Nanoscale Deposition of Noble Metal Particles on Acupuncture Needle 63-- 4.1 Introduction 63-- 4.2 Experimental section 64-- 4.2.1 Chemicals and materials 64-- 4.2.2 Fabrication of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited Porous Hand Acupucnture Needle 65-- 4.2.3 Characterization of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited Porous Hand Acupucnture Needle 66-- 4.3 Results and discussion 67-- 4.3.1 Characterization of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited Acupuncture Needles 67-- 4.3.2 Therapeutic Performance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Deposited on Hand Acupuncture Needles 74-- 4.4 Conclusions 76-- 4.5 References 77-- Chapter 5. Investigation for Manufacture of Hierarchical Micro/Nano-porous Acupucnture Needle 78-- 5.1. Introduction 78-- 5.2. Study on Influential Factors of Electrochemical Anodization 79-- 5.2.1 Voltage 79-- 5.2.2 Electrolyte Volume 80-- 5.2.3 Anodization Time 81-- 5.2.4 Reuse of Electrolyte 83-- 5.2.5 Reuse of Carbon Paper 85-- 5.3. Automation Process Equipment 87-- 5.3.1 Auto Anodizing Apparatus 87-- 5.3.2 Auto Mass Production Anodization System 91-- 5.4. Conclusions 102-- 5.5. References 103
CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuels; Water splitting for hydrogen generation; Quantum dot devices; Dye sensitized solar cells; Environmental remediation; Synthesis of functional nanomaterials; CO2 연료전환; 수소생산을 위한 광전기화학적 물분해; 양자점 태양전지; 염료감응 태양전지; 공해물질 저감연구; 기능성 나노소재 개발