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Void and secondary phase formation mechanisms of CZTSSe using Sn/Cu/Zn/Mo stacked elemental precursors

Void and secondary phase formation mechanisms of CZTSSe using Sn/Cu/Zn/Mo stacked elemental precursors
Kim, Se-YunSon, Dae-HoKim, Young-illKim, Seung-HyunKim, SammiAhn, KwangseokSung, Shi-JoonHwang, Dae-KueYang, Kee-JeongKang, Jin-KyuKim, Dae-Hwan
DGIST Authors
Kim, Se-Yun; Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Young-ill; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Sammi; Ahn, Kwangseok; Sung, Shi-JoonHwang, Dae-KueYang, Kee-JeongKang, Jin-KyuKim, Dae-Hwan
Issue Date
Nano Energy, 59, 399-411
Article Type
Author Keywords
CZTSSeFormation mechanismMetal precursorSecondary phaseTwo-step processVoid
Tin compoundsCopperDealloyingEfficiencyGrain boundariesLayered semiconductorsMass transferZincCZTSSeFormation mechanismMetal precursorSecondary phaseTwo-step processVoidSulfur compoundsSemiconductor alloysTin
In recent years, Cu 2 ZnSn(S 1-x Se x ) 4 (CZTSSe) prepared by a two-step process using metal precursors has been reported to exhibit a relatively high power conversion efficiency, and a high efficiency of 12.5% by two-step process contained via sputtering method was recently confirmed by our group. In this study, we proposed formation mechanisms for the CZTSSe double layer, voids and ZnSSe layer, which were observed in the CZTSSe using metal precursor. Due to the persistent dezincification from the metal precursors and preferential reaction between the Zn and chalcogens such as S and Se, almost all Zn is consumed to form the ZnSSe layer; as a result, large voids are produced first under the ZnSSe layer. Cu 2 Se and SnSe are grown on the ZnSSe layer via migration of the Cu and Sn through the grain boundaries of the ZnSSe layer. Thus, additional small voids are expected to form due to the mass transfer of Cu and Sn. Because of the preferentially formed ZnSSe layer and the chalcogenation of Cu and Sn after the mass transfer, a CZTSSe double layer can be formed, and ZnSSe can exist between these CZTSSe layers. Finally, we propose a method based on the formation mechanism to control the voids and secondary phases, which affect the fill factor and output current. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
Elsevier BV
Related Researcher
  • Author Sung, Shi-Joon  
  • Research Interests Compound Semiconductor Materials & Processes
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