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Control of hippocampal prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) expression reduces neurotoxic symptoms in five familial Alzheimer's disease mice

Control of hippocampal prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) expression reduces neurotoxic symptoms in five familial Alzheimer's disease mice
Kim, SehwanMoon, Gyeong JoonKim, Hyung JunKim, Do-GeunKim, JaekwangNam, YoungpyoSharma, ChanchalLeem, EunjuLee, ShinryeKim, Kyu-SungHa, Chang ManMcLean, CatrionaJin, Byung KwanShin, Won-HoKim, Dong WoonOh, Yong-SeokHong, Chang-WonKim, Sang Ryong
Issued Date
British Journal of Pharmacology, v.179, no.5, pp.998 - 1016
Author Keywords
Alzheimer's diseaseblood-brain barrierhippocampusmicrogliaprothrombin kringle-2
Background and Purpose: There is a scarcity of information regarding the role of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which can be generated by active thrombin, in hippocampal neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental Approach: To assess the role of pKr-2 in association with the neurotoxic symptoms of AD, we determined pKr-2 protein levels in post-mortem hippocampal tissues of patients with AD and the hippocampi of five familial AD (5XFAD) mice compared with those of age-matched controls and wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. In addition, we investigated whether the hippocampal neurodegeneration and object memory impairments shown in 5XFAD mice were mediated by changes to pKr-2 up-regulation. Key Results: Our results demonstrated that pKr-2 was up-regulated in the hippocampi of patients with AD and 5XFAD mice, but was not associated with amyloid-β aggregation in 5XFAD mice. The up-regulation of pKr-2 expression was inhibited by preservation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) via addition of caffeine to their water supply or by treatment with rivaroxaban, an inhibitor of factor Xa that is associated with thrombin production. Moreover, the prevention of up-regulation of pKr-2 expression reduced neurotoxic symptoms, such as hippocampal neurodegeneration and object recognition decline due to neurotoxic inflammatory responses in 5XFAD mice. Conclusion and Implications: We identified a novel pathological mechanism of AD mediated by abnormal accumulation of pKr-2, which functions as an important pathogenic factor in the adult brain via blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Thus, pKr-2 represents a novel target for AD therapeutic strategies and those for related conditions. © 2021 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.
Related Researcher
  • 오용석 Oh, Yong-Seok 뇌과학과
  • Research Interests Monoaminergic regulation of the CNS and mood;anxiety disorder; 모노아민 (세로토닌; 도파민)에 의한 신경조절과 기분;불안 장애 기전 연구
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Department of Brain Sciences Molecular Psychiatry Lab 1. Journal Articles


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