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An Energy Autonomous 400 MHz Active Wireless SAW Temperature Sensor Powered by Vibration Energy Harvesting
- An Energy Autonomous 400 MHz Active Wireless SAW Temperature Sensor Powered by Vibration Energy Harvesting
- Zhu, Y[Zhu, Yao]; Zheng, YJ[Zheng, Yuanjin]; Gao, Y[Gao, Yuan]; Made, DI[Made, Darmayuda I.]; Sun, CL[Sun, Chengliang]; Je, MY[Je, Minkyu]; Gu, AY[Gu, Alex Yuandong]
- DGIST Authors
- Je, MY[Je, Minkyu]
- Issue Date
- IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 62(4), 976-985
- Article Type
- Acoustic Surface Wave Devices; Acoustic Waves; Acoustics; Cmos Integrated Circuits; DC-DC Converters; Energy-Autonomous; Energy-Autonomous Systems; Energy Harvesting; Integrated Circuit Manufacture; Low Power; Oscillators (Electronic); Phase Noise; Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters; Power Management; Radio; Resonators; SAW; Saw Oscillator; Saw Oscillators; Saw Temperature Sensors; Sawing; Temperature Sensor; Temperature Sensors; Vibration Energy Harvest; Vibration Energy Harvesting; Vibration Energy Harvests; Wireless
- An energy autonomous active wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensor system is presented in this paper. The proposed system adopts direct temperature to frequency conversion using a lithium niobate SAW resonator for both temperature sensing and high-Q resonator core in a cross-coupled RF oscillator. This arrangement simplifies the temperature sensor readout circuit design and reduces the overall system power consumption. A power conditioning circuit based on buck-boost converter is utilized to provide high efficiency power extraction from piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) and dynamic system power control. The SAW resonator is fabricated in-house using a two-step lithography procedure while the RF oscillator as well as the PEH power conditioning circuit are implemented in standard 65-nm and 0.18-μm CMOS processes respectively. The measured RF transmitter output power is -15 dBm with a phase noise of -99.4 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset, achieving a figure of merit (FOM) of -217.6 dB. The measured temperature sensing accuracy is ±0.6°C in -40°C to 120°C range. Fully powered by a vibration PEH, the proposed energy autonomous system has a self-startup voltage of 0.7 V and consumes an average power of 61.5 μW. © 2004-2012 IEEE.
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
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